While there are increasingly complex regulatory requirements governing the social obligations of mines, regulations are only catching up to what some mining companies are doing to benefit mine communities and stakeholders. Mining companies understand the need to obtain a so-called ‘social licence to operate’ from communities in an area, and many of them also conform to international regulations, such as stock exchanges’ environmental, social and governance (ESG) reporting rules, as well as international norms and expectations in terms of their social obligations.