The decision to establish a separate energy portfolio with the African National Congress’s Dr Kgosientsho Ramokgopa as Minister and the Democratic Alliance’s Samantha Graham as Deputy Minister has been welcomed by stakeholders and commentators alike. There are already warnings, however, that the success of the new Electricity and Energy Ministry will be judged not only on ensuring a permanent end to loadshedding but on whether it is able to shepherd South Africa, justly, through the unfolding energy transition in a way that addresses not only the immediate threats to security of supply and affordability but also long-term sustainability and competitiveness.